Describe “mukunda”.

[ Note :- In the subject ESO-15, The 'Mukanda' ritual was explained, but not 'Mukunda'. So, there was a spelling mistake in the assignment question. It is 'Mukanda' not 'Mukunda'. ]

'Mukanda' is an initiation ritual of 'Ndembu tribe' that resides in an African country, 'Zambia'. In this ritual, young men are circumcised and taught morals and values. Circumcised men are considered as the purified members of male community. The social significance of this ritual is the separation of young boys with their mothers and the ritual identification with their fathers.

Mukanda ritual marks the adulthood of young men. In Ndembu tribe, Mukanda ritual has much importance because organizing the ritual is associated with prestige. Boys are circumcised together from a cluster of neighbouring villages. Village headmen compete to oragnize the ritiual for prestige and ritual superiority.

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