Discuss the Relative Deprivation Approach to the understanding of poverty

There are two main approaches to understand poverty. One is ‘nutritional’ approach, and the other one is ‘relative deprivation’ approach. Nutritional approach measures poverty in terms of minimum income. This approach is adopted by most of the developing countries. Developed countries adopted the approach of relative deprivation to measure poverty, because deprivation to food is … Read more

Do you think villages can be treated as ‘little republics’? Critically discuss.

Before the British rule in India, Indian villages enjoyed considerable amount of autonomy from the higher level of the political system. This was because of the poor communication facilities and the lack of road connectivity. Kings allowed villages to govern themselves in day to day matters. Village panchayats used to settle disputes and maintained law … Read more

Role of forests in controlling floods.

Forests play a major role in preventing and controlling floods. Tree stores water in its deep roots. So, Forests allow the water to go into the soil. They also prevent the extreme water run-off and hence prevents landslides & topsoil erosion. Most of the flooding disasters are caused by deforestation. The volume of water retained … Read more


Parochialisation is the opposite process of universalisation. It is the process of localization and modification of the ‘great tradition’ into ‘little traditions’. One of the examples for this is the localization ‘Cow Nourisher worship festival’. Locals of Kishan Garhi village understood ‘Govardhan’ as ‘Gobar dhan’, that means cow dung is wealth, and celebrates the festival … Read more

Who constitutes a joint family?

A family is considered as a ‘joint family’, if it includes two or more married couples, who are related lineally or collaterally. Some joint families are lineal collateral joint families. Generally, lineal joint families are patrilineal families. In South-West and North-East India, matrilineal joint families can be traced. In some families, supplemented members such as … Read more