Is magic similar to science ? Discuss.

James Frazer, an eminent social anthropologist argued that as the civilization progresses, primitive magic is replaced by religion, in turn replaced by science. Civilized societies are looking at magic as superstition and science as truth, whereas magic is the root of science, according to Frazer. But many European Scholars criticized Frazer and argued that magic and science may … Read more

What is a ‘soft state’?

The term ‘soft state’ was introduced by Gunnar Myrdal, while comparing South Asian countries with European countries. According to him, South Asian countries follow the policy of soft state. The policy of ‘soft state’ means a lenient attitude of state towards social deviance. Soft states do not take hard decisions, even if the situation demands. This … Read more

Describe “mukunda”.

[ Note :- In the subject ESO-15, The ‘Mukanda’ ritual was explained, but not ‘Mukunda’. So, there was a spelling mistake in the assignment question. It is ‘Mukanda’ not ‘Mukunda’. ] ‘Mukanda’ is an initiation ritual of ‘Ndembu tribe’ that resides in an African country, ‘Zambia’. In this ritual, young men are circumcised and taught morals … Read more

Do you think villages can be treated as ‘little republics’? Critically discuss.

Before the British rule in India, Indian villages enjoyed considerable amount of autonomy from the higher level of the political system. This was because of the poor communication facilities and the lack of road connectivity. Kings allowed villages to govern themselves in day to day matters. Village panchayats used to settle disputes and maintained law … Read more

Role of forests in controlling floods.

Forests play a major role in preventing and controlling floods. Tree stores water in its deep roots. So, Forests allow the water to go into the soil. They also prevent the extreme water run-off and hence prevents landslides & topsoil erosion. Most of the flooding disasters are caused by deforestation. The volume of water retained … Read more