Outline the middle classes in Indian society.

The term middle classes refers to the social group that exists between upper classes and working classes. Middle class emerged in India under the British rule. Industrialization and mass education contributed to the forming of middle class. This newly formed middle class played an active role in India’s struggle for independence. After independence, the role … Read more

Discuss the Relative Deprivation Approach to the understanding of poverty

There are two main approaches to understand poverty. One is ‘nutritional’ approach, and the other one is ‘relative deprivation’ approach. Nutritional approach measures poverty in terms of minimum income. This approach is adopted by most of the developing countries. Developed countries adopted the approach of relative deprivation to measure poverty, because deprivation to food is … Read more

What is a ‘soft state’?

The term ‘soft state’ was introduced by Gunnar Myrdal, while comparing South Asian countries with European countries. According to him, South Asian countries follow the policy of soft state. The policy of ‘soft state’ means a lenient attitude of state towards social deviance. Soft states do not take hard decisions, even if the situation demands. This … Read more

Describe “mukunda”.

[ Note :- In the subject ESO-15, The ‘Mukanda’ ritual was explained, but not ‘Mukunda’. So, there was a spelling mistake in the assignment question. It is ‘Mukanda’ not ‘Mukunda’. ] ‘Mukanda’ is an initiation ritual of ‘Ndembu tribe’ that resides in an African country, ‘Zambia’. In this ritual, young men are circumcised and taught morals … Read more

Describe what is a marginalized group?

A marginalized group is a group of people that does not enjoy the same privileges as that of the rest of the society. Marginalized group suffer multiple deprivations. The access of the marginalized groups to the various aspects such as social cultural, economic and political aspects is very limited when compared to mainstream society.  The group becomes marginalized … Read more