Jews are one of the oldest communities that were dispersed, settled in different parts of the world and held onto the notion of homeland. The Jewish population started nation-building process, which made them more attached to their homeland. Eventually religious and national elements became highly intertwined.
Scattering of Jews started at the time of Assyrian invasion of northern Israel in 720 BCE. Thereafter Babylonia conquest led to further dispersal of Jews. In Babylonia empire, Jews prospered due to the demand for skilled labour and artisans. Jews established communities for themselves and maintained connection with their kins and friends back home. By this, Babylonia became center of Jewish prosperity and cultural-religious activity.
Hellenic rule of Israel in 330BCE brought dispersed Jews together, because major part of Middle East is conquered by Alexander. After that Roman empire is a big blow to Jew communities. They destroyed the temples of Jerusalem. Roman government took steps to prevent the political regeneration of Jews. With this, many Jews moved to European countries, mainly to Spain and France.
With the coming of Christianity, Jews faced further persecution and caused them to disperse. Roman Empire imposed restriction on interaction with Jews. It termed Jews as non-believers and imposed rules on treatment of non-believers. This moved Jews into slum areas. The Crusades deteriorated the condition of Jews.
Crusades destroyed many settlements of Jews and banished them from England in 1920. Jews moved to Slavic Kingdoms, where other religions were still tolerated. After a while, European Jews started Haskalah movement that advocated adopting enlightenment values, pressing for better integration into European society, and increasing education in secular studies, Hebrew and Jewish history.
Despite these movements, not all European countries granted equal rights to Jews. After French revolution, France, Britain and Netherlands had granted equal rights to Jews. Once again Jews faced worse conditions due to Nazi occupation of Germany. Lakhs of people were killed, abused and kept in concentration camps. The survivors of this genocide moved to USA, South America and to their homeland. After the holocaust, Jew communities worldwide felt the need of homeland and started Zionist movement.
Zionist movement led to the creation of Israel state within Palestine, despite the resistance of Palestinians. The United Nation General Assembly proposed the partition of Palestine into two states, an Arab state and a Jewish state, with Jerusalem to be under United Nations administration. But United Nations General Assembly resolutions are not binding legally. From then, Palestine and Israel are in conflict.